CCNA 200-301 Automation and Programmability Practice Questions

CCNA 200-301 Automation and Programmability Practice Questions

Which is a reason to automate a process for the configuration of several routers?

Correct! Wrong!

A reason to automate a process for the configuration of several routers is to create a positive outcome that can be reproduced. Automating processes for configuration decreases the possibility for misconfiguration. Automation of configuration does not decrease problems from the new configuration; if anything, it automates the increase of possible problems. Although it might seem like automating a process for configuration allows you to do less work, it is not always the case.

You need to configure a new static route on the existing 20 routers. Which is the best way to do this?   B. 

Correct! Wrong!

Creating a Python script to configure each router is the best way to complete this task. You can automate the process and save time since the entry of the route is a repetitious process. Copying and pasting scripts from Notepad++ or Excel into each router will require you to log into each router. Doing this increases the chances of missing a router. You could also work with a partner and start at different ends of the list, but again, this approach introduces the possibility of errors and ties up two technicians.

Which is the number one motivating factor to use network automation?

Correct! Wrong!

The number one motivating factor to use network automation is to reduce the human error factor when creating bulk changes. Network automation will not reduce the number of changes to be made. As an example, an updated ACL on all the routers will still need to be updated on all the routers. Network automation also does not reduce the complications that arise from changes; it actually increases them. Network automation also increases the planning time for changes. A network automation script can change everything rapidly; if it’s wrong, it can even lead to an outage of services.

What is the term that is used to describe the framework responsible for assisting in network automation?

Correct! Wrong!

The term DevOps is used to describe the framework responsible for assisting in network automation. It is usually written in conjunction with network operations, but it is considered a development function using the DevOps framework. The term NetOps refers to the network operation team’s responsibility. The term SysOps is used to describe the control of network systems such as DNS, Active Directory (AD), and DHCP, just to name a few Active Directory (AD), and DHCP, just to name a few. The term SecOps refers to the security operation as it pertains to the network.

Which management methodology is commonly used by developers for network automation? The YAML Ain’t Markup Language (YAML) markup language uses mapping to define keys and values as pairs. Definition

Correct! Wrong!

The management methodology that is commonly used by developers for network automation is Lean and Agile. Agile focuses on an adaptive approach for simultaneous workflows, such as the configuration of a default route on several routers. The Waterfall management methodology is used for projects in a linear process that does not allow for going back to a prior phase. The Kanban management methodology is used to improve existing processes. Scrum is primarily focused on getting more work done more quickly.

After you release a network automation script to production, which step should be completed?

Correct! Wrong!

After a network automation script is released to production, the very next process should be to monitor its effects on the network. This step should already be considered with pre-built metrics so that you can positively conclude its intended function. The testing step should have been done prior to the deployment phase. The building phase is done when you are ready to test a completed configuration change. The planning phase is the first phase before anything is put into motion; it is where you have determined the metrics for the project, which determines if the changes are successful.

Which element of YAML defines a key-value pair?

Correct! Wrong!

The YAML Ain’t Markup Language (YAML) markup language uses mapping to define keys and values as pairs. Definition is not a term used with YAML; therefore, option A is an invalid answer. Lists are keys with multiple values in the form of a list. Keys are categories that contain a value in the key-value pair.

How can you identify that a file is a YAML file?

Correct! Wrong!

A YAML file will always begin with three dashes.

Which structured data format closely resembles HTML?

Correct! Wrong!

Extensible Markup Language (XML) was adopted from HyperText Markup Language (HTML) as a storage method for systems to interchange data. YAML Ain’t Markup Language (YAML) is a white space structured file that is also used to store data for the interchange of information. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is another structured storage method for data and was originally created for use with JavaScript and gained popularity with other languages. Comma-separated values (CSV) is a flat data storage method that is popular when lists of information must be passed from system to system.

Which data format is structured by white space?

Correct! Wrong!

YAML Ain’t Markup Language (YAML) is a white space structured file that is also used to store data for the interchange of information. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is structured with curly and square brackets. Extensible Markup Language (XML) was adopted from HyperText Markup Language (HTML), which uses opening and closing tags. Comma-separated values (CSV) is a flat data storage method that uses commas to delimit the fields of information held on each line.

You are creating a network automation script to configure a network device. What should you research to identify what can be controlled with your script?

Correct! Wrong!

The application programming interface (API) on the device that is to be controlled through automation should be researched. The API is a method for controlling devices with programmability control; this includes the import and export of information. The user interface layout is more accustomed to users and manual configuration, since programs do not use the user interface. The source code and data storage methods for the device are not normally attainable and do not really get you what you need to control the device.

You are developing a network automation script that retrieves information. Which interface can you implement that will act similar to an API?

Correct! Wrong!

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) was originally created to allow retrieval of information from network devices and can be programmatically controlled, similar to an application programming interface (API). The command-line interface (CLI) is what the user will interface with; therefore, it is considered a type of user interface (UI). Syslog is a method of sending logging information to remote syslog servers. Secure Shell (SSH) is a method for connectivity and not used as an API.

Which protocol was created as a replacement for SNMP?

Correct! Wrong!

The NETCONF protocol was created as a replacement for the dated Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Syslog is a system of formatted messages for log file storage, either local or remote, via the syslog protocol. Representational state transfer (REST) is a set of constraints used for sending data to and from services. Secure Shell (SSH) is a method of connecting to network devices through a console-based terminal emulator.

Which protocol uses the YANG data model?

Correct! Wrong!

The NETCONF protocol was created to interface with network devices over the SSH protocol. Data transferred to and from network devices with the NETCONF protocol must adhere to the Yet Another Next Generation (YANG) data model. Representational state transfer (REST) is a set of constraints used for sending data to and from services. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a network management protocol used to retrieve and send information to remote network devices. YAML is a markup language used to store and transfer data between applications.

Which protocol uses an HTTPS transport to configure and retrieve details programmatically?

Correct! Wrong!

The RESTCONF protocol is used with Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) transport protocol. RESTCONF is the successor of NETCONF, which uses SSH for device access. RESTCONF now uses a common transport of HTTPS to send and retrieve information from network devices. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) defines its own standard of information set and retrieval and does not use HTTPS. Syslog is a system of formatted messages for log file storage either local or remote via the syslog protocol.

Which is a benefit of controller-based networking?

Correct! Wrong!

A benefit of controller-based networking is increased security. When ACLs and filters are applied, they are applied informally to all nodes that are controlled by the controller. There is not a reduction of problems that can be encountered in a network with the introduction of controller-based networking. Throughput will not increase magically because of the introduction of controller-based networking. Complexity should be reduced with the introduction of controller-based networking because all of the configuration is centralized.

Which statement is correct about controller-based networking?

Correct! Wrong!

Controller-based networking has a logically centralized control plane to centrally control the data plane. The data plane is not centralized because switching and routing of data must be done very fast, usually with the use of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Controller-based networking comes in many different forms, ranging from applications to hardware appliances. Both controller-based network switching and autonomous network switching use ASICs, but controller-based network switches do not centrally switch frames.

Which term is used with controller-based networking that combines multiple sites to act as one single network?

Correct! Wrong!

Software-Defined Wide Area Network (SD-WAN) is the term commonly used to describe the combination of multiple sites to act as one single network. Use cases of SD-WAN are disaster recovery and remote office and branch office planning. software-defined networking (SDN) is the term used to describe local area network (LAN) controller-based networking. SD-LAN is not a term commonly used, and therefore, option C is an invalid answer. A virtual private network (VPN) will allow multiple sites to act as one single network, but it is not centrally controlled with controller-based networking.

Which is a potential disadvantage with controller-based networking?

Correct! Wrong!

Controller-based networking, also known as software-defined networking (SDN), is roughly 15 years old. Many see this maturity as a disadvantage when comparing it to traditional networking equipment that is much older in theory. Scalability, security, and centralized provisioning are advantages to using controller-based networking and far outweigh the disadvantage of the youth of SDN.

Which elements can be controlled with an SDN controller for an SDN-enabled switch?

Correct! Wrong!

Quality of service (QoS) can be directly controlled with an SDN controller. The SDN controller will push programming to the SDN-enabled switch so that the switch can control the flow of traffic. CPU and memory utilization can be reported upon, and arguably programming can be pushed out to alleviate central processing unit (CPU) and memory utilization, but CPU and memory utilization is not directly controlled with an SDN controller. The forwarding of traffic is a responsibility of the data plane, which can be changed by the control plane. However, the SDN controller does not forward packets explicitly; that is the function of the switch.

Which statement is correct about SDN switches?

Correct! Wrong!

All software-defined network (SDN) switches are stateless with respect to their configuration. The configuration is applied from the central controller, and therefore, any configuration contained on the switch does not matter if it is lost during a reboot. Data is not centrally switched at the SDN controller; this would make data switched at the SDN controller; this would make data transfer too slow and overburden the SDN controller. The data flowing through the switch is not consequential to the SDN controller; some data flows can be stateless, such as UDP, and some can be stateful, such as TCP.

Which technology allows for the central remote monitoring of network switches and routers?

Correct! Wrong!

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) allows for the central monitoring of switches and routers by using traps and polling of network metrics. Syslog is a method of collecting logs for passive analysis after an event has been brought to your attention. Software-defined networking (SDN) allows for the centralized control of switches and routers. The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is used to discover Cisco devices on the immediate network.

What is the SNMP component that aggregates all SNMP messages and polled metrics?

Correct! Wrong!

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) utilizes a component called the network management station (NMS) to collect all messages and poll metrics from all managed devices. An SNMP trap is a message generated from an SNMP agent installed on a host. An SNMP agent is a piece of software that monitors the operating system and hardware and either reports to the NMS or is polled by the NMS. A syslog server is a centralized server that collects logs for passive analysis of problems.

Which method for configuration is used with Cisco Prime Infrastructure?

Correct! Wrong!

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) along with Telnet and Secure Shell (SSH) are used to configure network devices with Cisco Prime. Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) and Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP) are used with wireless LAN controllers for the configuration of wireless access points (WAPs). RESTCONF is used with Cisco Digital Network Architecture (DNA) for network device configuration.

Which type of architecture is used with controller-based networks?

Correct! Wrong!

The Spine/Leaf architecture has been adopted in controller-based networks. The Leaf switch acts as the access and distribution, and the Spine acts as the core or backbone for the network. The three-tier network model and the collapsed core network model are used with controller-based networking. However, the concepts of the Cisco three-tier model are still applicable, such as the access, distribution, and core concepts as described above. A storage area network (SAN) fabric is not used in a network or controller-based network, as it is applicable only to storage area networks.

Which is a correct statement about Spine/Leaf architecture?

Correct! Wrong!

Leaf switches never connect to other Leaf switches; they only connect to Spine switches. There can be many Spine switches per network; they are considered the backbone of the network. Although nothing stops you from connecting a host to a Spine switch, Spine switches should only provide core/backbone services.

What is the flow of traffic in a Spine/Leaf network?

Correct! Wrong!

Traffic flow in a Spine/Leaf network flows from the host connected to the Leaf to the Spine, eventually to the destination Leaf and the awaiting host. Leaf switches are connected only to the Spine; therefore, traffic cannot flow from the host to a Leaf to another Leaf directly. Hosts should not be connected to Spine switches, so traffic will not flow from the host to the Spine to a Leaf and then a Spine switch.

Which current Cisco SDN solution is data center focused?

Correct! Wrong!

The Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI) software-defined networking (SDN) solution is data center – focused to deliver applications to end users. The Cisco Application Policy Infrastructure Controller - Enterprise Module (APIC-EM) is a legacy SDN solution that is not part of Cisco Digital Network Architecture (DNA). OpenDaylight (ODL) is an open platform used for SDN solutions; it is not provided or maintained by Cisco. The Cisco Software-Defined Wide-Area Network (SD-WAN) is a scalable SDN solution for networks that operate over several data centers.

Your company has an application they need remote office/branch office employees to directly access. Which Cisco SDN solution should you implement?

Correct! Wrong!

Cisco Software Defined - Wide Area Network (SD-WAN) is a solution that will allow remote office/branch office (ROBO) personnel to access cloud-based applications directly. The Cisco Application Policy Infrastructure Controller - Enterprise Module (APIC-EM) is a legacy SDN solution that is not part of Cisco Digital Network Architecture (DNA). Cisco Prime Infrastructure is a legacy management tool for deployment of switches, routers, and wireless. OpenDaylight (ODL) is an open platform used for SDN solutions; it is not provided or maintained by Cisco.

What is the name of the networking model that incorporates a distribution layer?

Correct! Wrong!

The campus networking model is a traditional networking model that is deployed as either a three-tier model with a core, distribution, and access layer or a collapsed core model. In the collapsed core model, the core and distribution layers are the same functional equipment. The Spine/Leaf, also known as the CLOS model, is commonly found in software-defined networking (SDN).

Which statement is correct about the SDN controller?

Correct! Wrong!

The software-defined network (SDN) controller replaces the control plane on SDN devices. The SDN devices in the network do not contain a control plane locally and instead are controlled by the SDN controller. The SDN controller does not configure the management plane of the network devices; it replaces the management plane of the network devices; it replaces the management plane of the network devices. The SDN controller does not monitor the data plane of traffic; it only controls the traffic. The SDN controller does not complement the control plane of the SDN device; it replaces the control plane of the SDN device.

Which platform is Cisco’s SDN controller offering for enterprise connectivity?

Correct! Wrong!

Application Policy Infrastructure Controller - Enterprise Module (APIC-EM) is a Cisco SDN controller. This package is freely downloadable from the Cisco DevNet website as of the writing of this book. It comes with several built-in apps, such as a plug and play module and a path trace module. Many other apps can be built on top of the APIC to extend functionality of the controller. However, the product has been largely replaced with Cisco DNA and is now licensed. OpenSDN is an open-source SDN controller platform that utilized the open-source OpenDaylight (ODL) protocol. OpenStack is another open-source SDN controller aimed at data centers.

Which network plane is used for Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)?

Correct! Wrong!

The control plane refers to any mechanism that controls the data plane. STP is used to control the data plane by removing redundant links. The data plane is responsible for switching and routing data. Any data that is destined for endpoints is switched or routed on the data plane. The management plane is any mechanism that helps in the management of a router or switch. Switch plane is not a term normally used to describe data types; therefore, option D is an invalid answer.

Which network plane is used by syslog for delivering messages from the router or switch?

Correct! Wrong!

The management plane is any mechanism that helps in the management of a router or switch. Some of the common mechanisms are SSH and Telnet. However, any mechanism that the router uses for management is considered part of the management plane. The control plane refers to any mechanism that controls the data plane. The data plane is responsible for switching and routing data. Any data that is destined for endpoints is switched or routed on the data plane. Switch plane is not a term normally used to describe data types; therefore, option D is an invalid answer.

When a network packet is routed in a router, which network plane is facilitating the traffic? The data plane is responsible for switching and routing data. Any data that is destined for endpoints is switched or routed on the data plane. For example, when one computer pings another, the ping is switched and routed on the data plane. The control plane refers to any mechanism that controls the data plane. The management plane is any mechanism that helps in the management of a router or switch. Switch plane is not a term normally used to describe data types; therefore, option C is an invalid answer.

Correct! Wrong!

On which network plane would a routing protocol perform?

Correct! Wrong!

Routing protocols such as OSPF and EIGRP would perform their function on the control plane since they are controlling the routing of the data plane. The data plane is responsible for switching and routing data. Any data that is destined for endpoints is switched or routed on the data plane. For example, when one computer pings another, the ping is switched and routed on the data plane. The management plane is any mechanism that helps in the management of a router or switch. Routing plane is not a term normally used to describe data types; therefore, option D is an invalid answer.

On which SDN plane does CDP function?

Correct! Wrong!

The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) functions on the management plane of the SDN model. It helps with management of the routers and switches and does not directly impact the data plane. The data plane is responsible for switching and routing data. Any data that is destined for endpoints is switched or routed on the data plane. Network plane is not a term normally used to describe data types; therefore, option C is an invalid answer. The management plane is any mechanism that helps in the management of a router or switch.

Which is used for communication directly to the SDN devices in the network?

Correct! Wrong!

The southbound interface (SBI) directly communicates with the SDN devices. This control is done via several different types of SBI protocols, such as OpenFlow, OpFlex, and CLI (Telnet/SSH). The northbound interface (NBI) is responsible for allowing communication between applications and the core of the controller. The core of the controller is the mechanism that connects the NBI to the SBI. Applications hosted on the controller interface with the NBI.

What is an application program interface (API)?

Correct! Wrong!

An application program interface (API) is a method the programmer has created to allow other programs to communicate with their program. The interprogrammability is required when another program wants to share data with the API. Although an API allows data transfer, it is not a program specifically written for the transfer of data. An API is used for network programmability, but it is not a language for network programmability. An API does not allow for a program to be virtualized.

When an application communicates with an SDN controller, which mechanism does it use to communicate?

Correct! Wrong!

The northbound interface (NBI) is responsible for allowing communication between applications and the core of the controller. Applications therefore directly communicate with the core through the northbound interface. The southbound interface (SBI) directly communicates with the SDN devices. The core of the controller is the mechanism that connects the NBI to the SBI. The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used for the monitoring and collection of device metrics.

Which networking plane is responsible for routing of packets to specific destinations?

Correct! Wrong!

The data plane is responsible for the routing of packets to specific destinations. The control plane would be responsible for the management of the routes for the functional routing of packets. The management plane would be responsible for the management of all functions of the router. There is no plane called the routing plane; therefore, option D is an invalid answer.

What is the maximum hop count of fabric switching?

Correct! Wrong!

The maximum hop count on fabric switching is a total of 3 hops. When a host transmits, it will enter a Leaf switch; the Leaf switch will then forward traffic to the Spine switch. The Spine switch will in turn forward traffic to the corresponding Leaf switch and to the destination host. Of course, traffic could be 1 hop away, if both hosts are on the same Leaf switch. However, the maximum hop count is 3 hops.

Which component of an SDN is where the MTU is set?

Correct! Wrong!

The underlay is where you will set the maximum transmission unit (MTU). The overlay is where the tunnel or virtual circuit is built using the underlay as the transport. A Leaf switch is a part of the software-defined network (SDN), along with the Spine switch; both need to have the same MTU set.

You are connecting to a router and configuring ACLs through the web interface. Which plane are you affecting?

Correct! Wrong!

When you configure access control lists (ACLs) through any interface, you are affecting the control plane. This is because you are controlling the flow of data with the ACL. You are accessing the router through the management plane when you are connected to either the web interface or the command-line interface (CLI). The data plane is what you are controlling with the control plane. The data plane is the actual flow of information.

Which WAN technology uses the overlay to connect remote offices?

Correct! Wrong!

Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network (DMVPN) is a wide area network (WAN) technology that allows for virtual private networks (VPNs) to be created using the overlay of software-defined networking (SDN). Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) is used to transport virtual local area network (VLAN) traffic over routed connections. Equal-cost multi-path routing (ECMP) is used by Leaf and Spine switches to provide a next-hop packet forwarding decision.

Which protocol allows for the tunneling of layer 2 traffic over a layer 3 network?

Correct! Wrong!

The Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) protocol is used to create layer 2 tunnels over a layer 3 network. The VXLAN protocol functions by encapsulating layer 2 traffic inside of a layer 3 packet. The Equal Cost Load Balancing Protocol (ECMP) is used by Leaf and Spine switches Protocol (ECMP) is used by Leaf and Spine switches to provide next-hop packet forwarding decisions. Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network (DMVPN) is a point-to-multipoint VPN technology used for layer 3 connectivity over a wide area network (WAN) connection. The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary layer 3 routing protocol.

Which is a protocol used on the management plane?

Correct! Wrong!

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol used on the management plane. SNMP is used for the management of routers and switches because it can be writeable and allow for configuration. The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a control protocol because it communicates port properties via layer 2 frames, such as power requirements. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a control protocol, because it is used to send control messages back to the originating device. The VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is used to communicate the control information of VLANs to other participating switches.

Which next-hop packet forwarding protocol is used with SDN switching networks?

Correct! Wrong!

The equal-cost multi-path routing (ECMP) packet forwarding protocol is used to calculate next-hop forwarding with SDN switching networks. The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a layer 3 routing protocol and not used with SDN switching networks. The Multiprotocol Label Switching Protocol (MPLS) is a protocol used with MPLS wide area network (WAN) providers and not used with SDN switching networks. The CLOS network is also known as a Leaf/Spine network, but it is the topology and not a next-hop packet forwarding protocol.

Which product is a replacement for APIC-EM?

Correct! Wrong!

The Cisco DNA Center is Cisco’s next-generation software-defined network (SDN) Cisco’s Application Policy Infrastructure Controller - Enterprise Module (APIC-EM) platform. OpenFlow is a protocol used to configure software-defined networks. Cisco Prime Infrastructure (CPI) is a network management software suite, but it does not provide SDN functionality. Cisco Software Defined - Wide Area Network (SD-WAN) is an SDN controller for building WAN connections.

Which protocol is not used by the DNA discovery process for reading the inventory of a network device?

Correct! Wrong!

After the Cisco Digital Network Architecture (Cisco DNA) discovery process has found a device, it will use SSH, Telnet, SNMPv2, SNMPv3, HTTP, HTTPS, and NETCONF. The discovery process will not use OpenFlow, since this is a configuration protocol that is mainly used by open platforms.

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